North Africa is by most measures already an exceedingly hostile environment. It has relatively little arable land, next to no rainfall beyond the narrow coastal strip, and extreme temperature highs, which regularly top 45°C. Such is the region’s stark aridity that one can travel from the Nile river to the Atlantic Ocean, some 4000km (2500 miles), without stumbling on a single surface water source. These natural challenges have long posed considerable governance difficulties for regional states, who have struggled to bring development or prosperity to their poor, unsettled desert interiors. That failure has contributed to much of the Sahara’s emergence as a lawless node of discontent and instability.
- Transatlantic cooperation is the key to European energy security
- What We Are Watching: “Is NATO Really Worth It?” – A insightfull contribution from LTG Ben Hodges on Transatlantic Relations
- Beijing’s Perspective on the EU’s new China policy
- Towards convergence in European arms export policies: How to overcome the Franco-German stalemate?
- The INF Treaty is Dead. Long Live the Arms Race.
- The “2024 Putin transit” and Russia’s political future
- The Arctic: Stable Governance Amid Melting Ice
- Russia’s Foreign Policy – Coping with Overextension and Uncertainty
- Russia’s economy until 2030: Falling behind
- The Arctic: rising temperatures, rising tensions?